Martin Luther (b. November 10, 1483 in Eisleben, Germany; d. February 18, 1546 in Eisleben) is known as the Father of Protestantism. He had studied to become a lawyer before becoming an Augustinian monk in 1505, and was ordained a priest in 1507.
While continuing his studies in pursuit of a Doctor of Theology degree, he discovered significant differences between what he read in the Bible and the theology and practices of the church. On October 31, 1517, he posted a challenge on the church door at Wittenberg University to debate 95 theological issues. Luther's hope was that the church would reform its practice and preaching to be more consistent with the Word of God as contained in the Bible.
What started as an academic debate escalated to a religious war, fueled by fiery temperaments and violent language on both sides. As a result, there was not a reformation of the church but a separation. "Lutheran" was a name applied to Luther and his followers as an insult, but adopted as a badge of honor by them instead.
Lutherans still celebrate Reformation on October 31 and still hold to the basic principals of theology and practice espoused by Luther (see sidebar).
Many Lutherans still consider themselves as a reforming movement within the Church catholic, rather than a separatist movement, and Lutherans have engaged in ecumenical dialogue with other church bodies for decades. In fact, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America has entered into cooperative "full communion" agreements with several other Protestant denominations.
Luther's Small Catechism, which contains teachings on the Ten Commandments, the Apostle's Creed, the Lord's Prayer, Holy Baptism, Confessions and Absolution, Holy Communion, and Morning and Evening Prayers, is still used to introduce people to the Lutheran faith, as is the Augsburg Confession.